Category Archives: Scholars

AIYS at MESA 2019

MESA has just announced its 2019 program. One of the panels organized by AIYS is “From al-Hadi ila al-Haqq to Husayn al-Huthi: The Zaydi Phenomenon in Yemen.” The panel will be held Saturday, 11/16/19 at 8:30am.

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Mosque of al-Hādī ilā al-Ḥaqq in Ṣa‘da

This will include the following papers:

•  Making an Imam: The Rebellion of Yahya b. ‘Abd Allah in Zaydi Historiography (Najam Haider, Barnard College)
•   Rasulid Sultans and Zaydi Imams: War (Mostly) and Peace (a Little) in Yemen during the 13th-15th centuries (Daniel Martin Varisco, President, AIYS)
•    “The ahl al-bayt’s return to power: The legitimation of religious rule in the speeches of Husayn al-Huthi in the context of the current crisis in Yemen” (Alexander Weissenburger, Institute for Social Anthropology, Austrian Academy of Sciences)
• David Hallenberg (University of Oregon) will discuss the preservation of Zaydi manuscripts
• The Discussant will be Brinkley Messick (Columbia University)

Here is the abstract of the panel:

The Zaydi sect has received attention lately due to the ongoing war in Yemen in which a Saudi coalition is fighting a local alliance of northern tribes, former military and a family known as the Huthis, a group that is reviving Zaydi Islam with influence from Iran. As a branch of the Shi‘a, the Zaydis take their inspiration from Zayd ibn ‘Ali, the fifth imam, who was killed while attempting to overthrow the Ummayad caliph in 122/740. Zaydism spread to several parts of the Islamic world, but its most lasting imprint was in Yemen. In 897 a descendant of ‘Ali named Yahya b. al-Husayn, and known as al-Hadi ila al-Haqq, established a local dynasty in northern Yemen that lasted, without ever having full control of what constitutes Yemen today, until 1962.

This panel brings together scholars who work on the diverse span of Zaydi history in Yemen. One paper examines the views of four Zaydi scholars writing during the time of the Hadawi dominance in Yemen on an earlier Zaydi imam who had accepted a stipend from the Abbasid caliph, thus renouncing the call for armed rebellion. Another paper examines the challenge to Zaydi dominance in the north during the 12th through the 15th centuries by the invasion of the Ayyubids and succeeding dynasty of the Rasulid sultans. The first Rasulid sultan received the blessing of the caliph in Baghdad in order to fight the Zaydis. The Rasulid chronicles and Zaydi sources describe the battles and peace agreements between the two polities, including their rivalry for influence in Mecca. A third provides a focus on the present context with an analysis of the speeches of Husayn al-Huthi, who provides the basis for legitimizing religious rule in Yemen, especially for the Ahl al-Bayt. These speeches are the discursive backbone of Huthi rhetoric, which is spread widely in the media. The final paper addresses the loss and destruction of manuscripts, largely from private and public Zaydi libraries, in Yemen’s north and efforts by NGOs to document the losses and assist in preservation. In all, the range of papers provides an introduction to a field of study which has received relatively little attention by Western scholars.

 

Dictionary on Tribal Customary law in Yemen

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Culminating its support for Yemen’s cultural heritage, AIYS has recently printed and published Qāmūs al-‘urf al-qabīlī fī al-Yaman (Dictionary of Tribal Customary Law in Yemen) in three volumes. This is a remarkable work aimed to fill a gap in the Yemeni literature. The author is Ahmed al-Gabali, a senior researcher at the Yemeni Center for Studies and Research.

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Ahmad Gabali with Dr. Salwa Dammaj in the AIYS office

This dictionary is the first of its kind in the Yemeni literature. It is designed to gather, document and explain terms and idioms regarding tribal norms and rules in different regions of Yemen from north to south and from east to west. The author conducted a nationwide field survey in the most famous tribal regions in Yemen. Study of the available literature provided a key resource for the content. This was based on original tribal documents, works by Yemeni authors, as well as studies by foreign researchers. In addition, geographical and historical literature was consulted as a reference to support the work. Local folk poetry in several Yemeni regions also proved valuable help for explaining the terms and concepts. Generally speaking, the content of the dictionary is based on reliable and credible sources and authentic references. It will serve as a main reference for researchers in the future.

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The author Aḥmad Ṣāliḥ al-Gabalī has been a sociology and anthropology researcher at the Yemen Center forStudies and Research since 2004. He received an M.A. degree in Bulgaria in 1988. His previous publications include studies of the terms hajar and jawār in ancient Yemen as well as the Contract of Medina written during the lifetime of the Prophet. He began research for this book on Yemeni tribes in 2006.

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Al-Khazrajī’s “al-‘Uqūd al-lu’lu’īya”

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Twisting the “Strings” and Punishing the “Pearls”
The Editing Errors by the Historian Author Redhouse
concerning the Historian Narrator Alī b. al-Ḥasan al-Khazrajī

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The most famous history of Rasulid Yemen is ‘Uqūd al-lu’lu’īya fī ta’rīkh al-dawla al-Rasūlīya by the court historian ‘Alī b. al-Ḥasan al-Khazrajī (d. 1410 CE). This was published in a widely used edition by Brill from 1906-1918 in five volumes, but there are later editions edited by Muḥammad ‘Alī al-Akwa‘ and also by ‘Abd Allāh al-Ḥibshī. Unfortunately the Brill edition has multiple errors in both the translation and Arabic text. I have created a webpage discussing the errors in the edition, the range of editions available and a biography of Sir James William Redhouse (d. 1892), who was the translator.

I encourage anyone who uses this edition to send in errors they have noticed to be added the webpage.

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Ḥaḍramī historian ‘Abd al-Raḥmān al-Mallāḥī

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One of the most important recent historians of the Ḥaḍramawt is ‘Abd al-Raḥmān al-Mallāḥī (1936-2014). An article on his life work can be found on al-‘Arabī. Among his publications are the following:

1- كتاب بادية المشقاص .

2- الحضارم في مومباسا ودار السلام (عن الهوية الحضرمية)

3- ملامح من التداخل المعرفي بين ربابنة حضرموت وعمان .

4- تقويم باكريت النجمي (عن الفلك) .

5- البلدة بين المفهوم الفلكي والمفهوم الشعبي .

6- روزنامات الربان بامعيبد .

7- الوجيز في تاريخ الشحر .

Rasulid Seminar in Bonn

mahoneyrasulidDan Mahoney opening the Rasulid Seminar in Bonn

On Friday, March 29, a seminar on Rasulid studies was held in Bonn, Germany at the Annemarie Schimmel Kolleg. Funding for the seminar was provided by the Fritz Thyssen Stiftung and the Kolleg. Papers were presented by Ingrid Hehmeyer, Ellen Kenney, Dan Mahoney, Magdalena Moorthy-Kloss and Dan Varisco. Preparations are underway to publish the papers.

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AIYS President Dan Varisco presented at the seminar

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Seminar dinner at Em Höttche in Bonn
(left: Ellen Kenney, Roxani Margariti, Ingrid Hehmeyer, Dan Varisco, Zacharie de Pierrepont; right: Dan Mahoney, Petra Schmidl (partially hidden), Magdalena Moorthy-Kloss, Adam Sabra)

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Dan Mahoney, Petra Schmidl, Magdalena Moorthy-Kloss,
Adam Sabra

Yemen’s Ḥumaynī poetry

One of the indigenous forms of Arabic poetry in Yemen is called ḥumaynī. For those who have not read the chronicle of Yaḥya b. al-Ḥusayn (d. 1100/1689) entitled Ghāyat al-amānī, it might be of interest to note that he claims the first appearance of this poetic form in the year 838/1434-5. This reference appears to be to the first collection of this poetry, since such a local form would not originally have been written. I attach the relevant pages from the edited text by Muḥammad al-Akwa‘ published in 1388/1968 in Cairo.

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Thanking Mulk for her service to AIYS

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Mulk with her grandchildren and Dr. Salwa Dammaj

On Thursday, March 7, a reception party was held at AIYS in Ṣan‘ā’ to bid farewell to Mulk, who started working for AIYS in 1998 until 2018. Her daughters and granddaughters were in attendance. She is from the Manākha district of Ṣan‘ā’ governorate. Mulk noted that when she was working for a Yemeni family in 1998, that family introduced her to an American woman called Barbara, who helped her to get a job opportunity in the AIYS. She started working in the AIYS office when Marta Colburn was the Resident Director. Afterwards she kept her job with directors Chris Edens and Stephen Steinbeiser and most recently Salwa Dammaj.

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Mulk served in the three buildings that used to be the AIYS headquarters. After her husband died in 2006 she had to support and was responsible for the  upbringing of her six siblings.

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Mulk with an AIYS friend

She holds a lot of reminiscences about the foreign visitors and researchers who came to AIYS over the past two decades. Mulk said that she was deeply impressed by the late Selma al-Radi, describing her as very kind and helpful lady. She is very grateful for AIYS, considering her work for the institute as a very positive experience in her life. AIYS deeply appreciates Mulk’s services and loyalty, wishing her good health and welfare.

Bibliography of Arabic Texts on Yemen

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There is a useful bibliography of Arabic texts related to Yemen on the website Alukah.net.  Several of these are available in pdf.

For access to a major collection of downloadable pdfs on Yemen, go here.

Here is the start of the bibliography noted above.

اخي الكريم
هذه قائمة بالمصادر الأساسية في تاريخ اليمن، القديم والمعاصر.
مصادر ومراجع تاريخ اليمن
فصل من كتاب (جامع مؤلفات أهل اليمن ، المخطوطة والمطبوعة منذ أول تأليف ختى عام 2005م، بيليوجرافيا شاملة : تأليف : عمر عوض خريص ، مخطوط

* أئمة اليمن .
محمد بن محمد بن يحيى زبارة ، ت (1380هـ) طبع بتعز سنة 1952م . وطبعته الدار اليمنية
ـــ
الأباضية بحضرموت.
عبدالقادر محمد الصبان ، مخطوط ، لدى ورثة المؤلف بسيئون .
ـــ
* أبرز الأحداث اليمنية في ربع قرن : سبتمبر 1962ـ سبتمبر1987: من ارشيف صحيفة الرأي العام .، دمشق : مطبعة الكاتب العربي 1987، 175ص 24سم .
ـــــــ
* الاتجاه القومي في حركة الاحرار اليمنيين .
عبدالله أحمد الذيعاني ، رسالة ماجستير ، بغداد ، (طع 256).
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* آثار ونقوش العقلة .
محمد عبدالقادر بافقيه ، مطبعة لجنة التاليف والترجمة ، القاهرة 1967.
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* اثبات ماليس مثبوت من تاريخ يافع في حضرموت .
عبدالخالق بن عبدالله بن صالح البطاطي (1324ـ 1410هـ) ،مطابع دار البلاد بجدة ، 122 ص ، والمؤلف رجل من رجال الدولة القعيطية ، تولى نيابة السلطان على مدينة الشحر ، وكان مخلصا وفيا لبلاده ، شارك في عملية التنوير والبناء ، وكتابه هذا ردا على مؤلف المؤرخ محمد عبدالقادر بامطرف (الاقطاعيون كانوا هنا ) . والذي كتبه بامطرف في ظروف حرجة .

There are many more texts listed on the site.